Tips for Names of Persons

Most names consist of a first name and a last name and are therefore easy to add. Things become complicated when you want to record a title of nobility or a name affix. In general, you should record a person's name the same way they use it themselves.

hmtoggle_plus1 Don't Add Academic Titles or Titles of Nobility

Titles of nobility, job titles, clerical titles, honorary titles, and similar are usually not considered when recording people's names.


In Citavi

Otto Fürst von Bismarck

Bismarck, Otto von

Prof. Dr. Norbert Henrichs

Henrichs, Norbert

Sir Peter Ustinov

Ustinov, Peter

Pater Alban Dold O.S.B.

Dold, Alban

hmtoggle_plus1 Prefixes (von, van, du ...) are Sometimes Linked to the First Name and Sometimes to the Last Name

Prefixes — prepositions, articles and their combinations — are linked to either the first or last name depending on the language region or citation style. Use the author editor to specify how names should be recorded by placing the insertion point in the Author field and pressing F9. If you decide not to enter a person's name using the author editor, please note the following rules:

In German-speaking areas, prefixes are attached to the person's first name:


In Citavi

Max von der Grün

Grün, Max von der

Karl Reichsfreiherr vom und zum Stein

Stein, Karl vom und zum

Prefixes are attached to the last name if prepositions and articles are placed before the surname:


In Citavi

Jürgen vom Scheidt

Vom Scheidt, Jürgen

Prefixes are attached to the last name in Luxembourgian names:


In Citavi

Émile van der Vekene

Van der Vekene, Émile

In English-speaking areas, prefixes are attached to the last name


In Citavi

Daphne du Maurier

Du Maurier, Daphne

Knightley d’Anvers

D’Anvers, Knightley

The Scottish "Mac/Mc" is always part of a last name:


In Citavi

Arthur MacDonald

MacDonald, Arthur

in French, Italian and Spanish names as with names of Latin origin, prefixes are attached to the last name:


In Citavi

Jean de La Fontaine

La Fontaine, Jean de

Antonio Di Pietro

Di Pietro, Antonio

Maria Della Casa

Della Casa, Maria

Gertrud von le Fort

Le Fort, Gertrud von

hmtoggle_plus1 Special Guidelines for Multiple Last Names

In Spanish-speaking areas a person may have two different surnames. Use the first surname to reference the person.


In Citavi

Luis Eduardo Romero Vera

Romero Vera, Luis Eduardo

Francisco Rodríguez Marín

Rodríguez Marín, Francisco

In Portuguese-speaking areas there can be two or three surnames. Use the last surname to reference the person.


In Citavi

Maria Helena Peres Varela Silva

Silva, Maria Helena Peres Varela

Maria Alice Oliveira Lusitano Gonçalves

Gonçalves, Maria Alice Oliveira Lusitano

João Oliveira Martins

Martins, João Oliveira

Hyphenated names are regarded as one name and are recorded as such.


In Citavi

Dieter Meyer-Renschhausen

Meyer-Renschhausen, Dieter

Klaus-Dieter Meyer-Schmidt

Meyer-Schmidt, Klaus-Dieter

Edgar Roquete-Pinto

Roquete-Pinto, Edgar

hmtoggle_plus1 Do Not Use Pseudonyms

If the person published using a pseudonym, enter his or her real name in the Author field. Make a note of the person's pseudonym in the Title supplement field. For example: Published using the Pseudonym Mark Twain.

There are no consistent rules for when you should cite a pseudonym instead of a real name. If a person is generally known by his or her pseudonym, his or her works are listed under this name (for example, Caravaggio), it is usually fine to cite the person by his or her pseudonym.

hmtoggle_plus1 Exceptions: Biblical Names, Names of Popes and Clerical Dignitaries, Etc.



Biblische Namen

Paulus [Apostolus]

altgriechische, altrömische, byzantinische Namen

Andron [Alexandrinus]
Andron [Historicus]
Andron [Teius]

Namen des Mittelalters

Bernardus [Claraevallensis]
Bernardus [de Waging]

Namen von Fürsten und Mitgliedern von Fürstenhäusern

Louis [France, Roi, XI.]
Louis [France, Roi, XVI.]

Namen von Päpsten und geistlichen Würdenträgern

Pius [Papa, X.]
Pius [Papa, XII.]

Namen von sehr bekannten Personen, die häufig mit unterschiedlichen Zusätzen zitiert werden

Cranach, Lucas [The Elder]
Cranach, Lucas [The Younger]

Open the author details dialog by placing the insertion point in the Author, Editor, or Collaborators field, press F9, and enter the name affixes in brackets following the last name.

hmtoggle_plus1 Defining the sort by name

Usually an author's last name is used for sorting when the bibliography is sorted alphabetically. However, if the last name includes a prefix, you can choose how it should be sorted. For example, you might want the author Al-Hasan to be sorted by Hasan or the author van Leuken to be sorted by Leuken. To define the sort order, click Lists > Persons and organizations. Double-click the name you want to modify. Then, enter the part of the name you want to sort by in the Sort by field.